See how both works in order to access string. The main benefit of this is that constants can be referred to in a consistent, expressive and type safe way. How to determine whether a string represents a numeric value (C# Programming Guide) 07/20/2015; 2 minutes to read +5; In this article. Java does not support unsigned, positive-only integers. This article will look at what slices are and how they are used. Given a text file, find its size in bytes. If minimum occurs two or more times in the array then the index at which it occurs first is printed or minimum value at the smallest index. The C++ function declaration should be changed to: int EncryptString(const char* plaintext, byte* buffer, size_t bufferSize); so that the caller can provide the memory and the return value indicates how many bytes were generated. Assembly language program to find the range of bytes Problem - Write an assembly language program that if an input number BYTE1 lies b/w 50H to 80H display it on output PORT2. If you have a number of constants that are logically related to each other, then you can group together these constants in an enumeration. It has a minimum value of -128 and a maximum value of 127 (inclusive). Maximum multi byte length of a character across all locales: varies, usually at least 4 ≥+1. i want to get the ascii value of the enter key from e. In this tutorial, you will learn to work with arrays. , outputfile above) instead of the screen. ASCII Table and Description. Should this instruction move the value 2 into the single byte at address EBX?. C++ Arrays You will learn to declare, initialize and, access array elements in C++ programming. Note: One’s bit is also called as the set bit. In standard C it never can be less than 8 bits. Write a c++ program which manages data in array having insert, update and delete value functions. Computers can only understand numbers, so an ASCII code is the numerical representation of a character such as 'a' or '@' or an action of some sort. C Program to INSERT a Sub-String in Main String at Given Position. C / C++ Forums on Bytes. C doesn't provide jagged arrays but we can simulate them using an array of pointer to a string. The limits. In this part of the C# tutorial, we will talk about data types. Unlike ‘C’, it is an additional data type for representing a Boolean value. This means that if the input that can overwrite the canary is sent to the child, we can use whether it crashes as an oracle and brute-force 1 byte at a time!. Because it could be really helpul! It turns out that they are equal respectively to: unsigned char, unsigned short, unsigned int and unsigned long long. In this C programming tutorial we are going to talk about the use of binary files. IBM Redbooks content is developed and published by the IBM Digital Services Group, Technical Content Services (TCS), formerly known as the ITSO. This header file defines macros such as FLT_MIN, FLT_MAX and FLT_DIG that store the float value ranges and precision of the float type. C Program to Convert Decimal to Binary Number - In this tutorial, we will learn about how to create a program in C that converts any given number (in decimal number) by user at run-time into its equivalent value in binary number. Indeed, if you total Column 2, you get 255, which is the number of bits in a byte. This is useful when one wants to specify the search pattern as a mixture of types. does it means extract bytes from an integer (hexadecimal) value I don't understand logic behind to implement this program ?. If the length of address is 4, IPAddress(Byte) constructs an IPv4 address otherwise, an IPv6 address with a scope of 0 is constructed. C Integer Data Type. // compile with: -unsafe. The C functions charmap_encode() and charmap_decode() use the maps to convert their input data efficiently. 0f double 0. If a programming language offers any data structure, it is most likely offers one-dimensional array. You can use the functions in this section to perform comparisons on the contents of strings and arrays. Full text of "Byte Magazine Volume 06 Number 06 - Operating Systems" See other formats. The program shows how to directly average the values in a double collection. The algorithm to find maximum is: we assume that it's present at the beginning of the array and stores that value in a variable. Understanding the ELF. Some values may actually get changed. The canary is determined when the program starts up for the first time which means that if the program forks, it keeps the same stack cookie in the child process. Average notes. Within this C program to find the smallest number in an array, the below For loop helps to iterate each cell present in a array. (a) 22 bytes (b) 14 bytes (c) 18 bytes (d) 10 bytes Ans: option (c) Explanation: The amount of memory required to store a structure variable is the sum of the sizes of all its members. Consider the instruction mov [ebx], 2. Note that this means, for example, that in the case of C-like languages a search for an untyped 0x42 will search for ' (int) 0x42 ' which is typically four bytes. The limits. Reference types include class types, interface types, delegate types, and array types. The program then finds the second largest element of the array using for loop. " In fact, C may be part of the problem: in C it's easy to make byte order look like an issue. If a conflict occurs, use NAMES or STRUCTURE, or manually edit the generated declaration or source program. Passing Arrays to Functions. When the program is loaded, DS:0 and ES:0 points to a 256-byte section of memory called the program segment prefix and this is immediately followed by the segments of the program. c in Cscope before 15. That's a value as well. Winter wrote a 160-byte C program to compute the first 800 digits of pi. First lower byte addition using ADD instruction and then higher byte addition using ADC instruction. Access the required bit 3. I have used DEV-C++ compiler for debugging purpose. Assigning the Hexadecimal number in a variable. The term data type refers to the type of data that can be stored in a variable. As an example, a stream of bits can constitute a visual image for a program that displays images. txt" contains "geeks" Output : 6 Bytes There are 5 bytes for 5 characters then an extra byte for end of file. UCHAR_MAX 255 Defines the maximum value for an unsigned char. NET Framework is provides functionality to convert base data types to an array of bytes, and an array of bytes to base data types. This program will show you how all values in an array are stored in memory. This article begins here: Reading COBOL Layouts where you will also find a topic index. 8051 Program to find largest number in a block of numbers: 8051 Program to find largest number; A program to find largest number among given block of numbers using 8051 microcontroller MOV DPTR,#5000H CLR C MOV R2,#09H MOVX A,@DPTR MOV 30H,A UP: INC DPTR MOVX A,@DPTR CJNE A,30H,DN SJMP NEXT DN: JC NEXT MOV 30H,A …. C doesn't provide jagged arrays but we can simulate them using an array of pointer to a string. The read() method of an InputStream returns an int which contains the byte value of the byte read. I need to do a checksum against a value being received by my program. Don't a lot of Intel chips work like that? 486? Pentium?. Actually, you’ll find 256 possible values for a byte, which includes the all-zero permutation. Square of given number using function with an argument and a return value. Note that this means, for example, that in the case of C-like languages a search for an untyped 0x42 will search for ' (int) 0x42 ' which is typically four bytes. If c is 200(11001000) and d is 100(01100100), c+d is 300(00000001 00101100), which is more than the max value 255(11111111). I often find myself scouring the intern. Should this instruction move the value 2 into the single byte at address EBX?. An integer value is typically specified in the source code of a program as a sequence of digits optionally prefixed with + or −. This article begins here: Reading COBOL Layouts where you will also find a topic index. Variables are named storage locations where data is stored, which may be changed as a program runs. The process remains the same but in this case we refer 2bytes as a single unit. It does not cover all topics or everything you would find in a complex layout, and it is intended to explain COBOL layouts only so you can use your converted data, not so you can write COBOL programs. For example, if a certain part of the byte array translates to "hello" I need to be able to find that word, and replace it with "bye". Size of Integer Pointer: 4 Bytes Size of Character Pointer: 4 Bytes Size of Float Pointer: 4 Bytes Explanation. What we need is a jagged array: A 2-D array whose rows can be of different length. Each call finds the expected value in the array. Given a text file, find its size in bytes. After you call htonl( ) to convert to network byte order, you get the most significant byte (0x1) in the lowest address. For example, the C malloc function allocates memory dynamically by finding and returning a new block of memory using operating system utilities. That is ok; the physical paths are given here but there may be a link in another location. But in the case of union, the amount of memory required is the amount required by its largest member. Home; Java Tutorial; Convert a byte array to a Hex string: 2. Print ASCII Values of Characters in C++. To force reinitializing, you must put explicitely something like. You can also find the corresponding macros for double and long double with the prefixes DBL_ and LDBL_ The following program illustrates the storage size and precision of floating-point numbers in your system. Integer: MAX, MIN VALUE : Integer « Data Type « Java Tutorial. Boolean data types are used to store values with two states: true or false. dif file and it shows the original hex code and patched code: Later compile the following C program by using any editor (I suggest use GCC in the linux platform). static byte MIN_VALUE : This is constant which holds minimum value a byte i. Java has no sizeof operator to find the size of primitive data types but all Java primitive wrappers except Boolean provide a SIZE constant in bits that could be divided by eight to get the size of a data type in bytes. It's the same range you'd find in a C language char variable. 1 Answers Write a program that takes a 3 digit number n and finds out whether the number 2^n + 1 is prime, or if it is not prime find out its factors. hope it was useful. For example, the ASCII value for the A is 65. Like char and unsigned char, it can be used to access raw memory occupied by other objects (object representation), but unlike those types, it is not a character type and is not an arithmetic type. errors (Optional) - if source is a string, the action to take when the encoding conversion fails (Read more: String encoding) The source parameter can be used to initialize the byte array. integers), but typically has a size of one byte. The logic behind to implement this program - right shift value according to byte position and mask it for One byte value (0xff). Difference between char *a and char a char * and char  both are used to access character array, Though functionally both are same , they are syntactically different. Before the program ends the reserved memory is released. txt* For Vim version 7. The ASCII value of alphabets are consecutive natural numbers. Visit the post for more. hope it was useful. First variables will be the one which will hold the values present in the variables to be Added and it will be NUM1 and NUM2. This document shows you how to write and build your first operating system in x86 assembly language. Given a text file, find its size in bytes. Remember that the byte with all bits having a value of 0 has its value set to 0. out < inputfile > outputfile. So the number of set bits in 13 is 3. Print ASCII Values of Characters in C++. Otherwise (0, 0, 0) would be valid. C / C++ Forums on Bytes. Data records begin with a delete flag byte. In this example, ascii_str is an input string that contains "Hello world!", we are converting it to a BYTE array. It can be used to wrap these libraries in pure Python. Indeed, if you total Column 2, you get 255, which is the number of bits in a byte. It comes with a default 1MHz Internal calibrated oscillator frequency. read(); To read all bytes in a Java InputStream you must keep reading until the value -1 is returned. 2008-12-01. Partiview (PC-VirDir) Peter Teuben, Stuart Levy 15 February. IBM Redbooks content is developed and published by the IBM Digital Services Group, Technical Content Services (TCS), formerly known as the ITSO. Understanding the ELF. By the help of string valueOf() method, you can convert int to string, long to string, boolean to string, character to string, float to string, double to string, object to string and char array to string. Of course, the 2 types of redirection can be used at the same time % a. You can use the functions in this section to perform comparisons on the contents of strings and arrays. C++ Programming Basics tutorials, C++ Programs Examples, Variables, Operators, Comments and Data Types in C++, Keywords in C++, C++ Expressions, Control Structures, Decision Making Structures, Loops(for loop, while loop, Do-while-Loop) in C++ all in cpp programming tutorials. You are likely wondering what are uint8_t, uint16_t, uint32_t and uint64_t. // compile with: -unsafe. Data Transmission conversion (kilobit): In data communications, a kilobit is a thousand bits, or 1,000 (103) bits. Return Value. These loops execute only when a particular condition is met. The following code example calculates a file size in KB, MB, GB etc. Each cubbyhole in memory can hold 1 byte. Here, we created a function void string2ByteArray(char* input, BYTE* output), to convert ASCII string to BYTE array, the final output (array of integers) is storing in arr variable. Within this C program to find the smallest number in an array, the below For loop helps to iterate each cell present in a array. 6 Bytes There are 5 bytes for 5 characters then an extra byte for end of file. There are 4 files all of which are0 bytes and say they "do not exist" when I try to delete them. Description. Practical: Parsing Binary Files. Find method that requires some amount of understanding. where each char element is stored in memory with a hex value. It should end up being a 4 byte value. I have tried. They are again arithmetic types and they are used to define variables that. Slices are analogous to arrays in other languages, but have some unusual properties. int value = -278; (I selected that value because it isn't very interesting for 125 - the least significant byte is 125 and the other bytes are all 0!) You first need a pointer to that value: int* pointer = &value; You can now typecast that to a 'char' pointer which is only one byte, and get the individual bytes by indexing. In addition, this class provides several methods for converting a byte to a String and a String to a byte, as well as other constants and methods useful when dealing with a byte. There is no (legitimate) “null reference. byteValue() method returns the value of this Integer as a byte. ===== Name: CVE-1999-0173 Status: Entry Reference: XF:http-cgi-formmail-use FormMail CGI program can be used by web servers other than the host server that the program resides on. Indeed, if you total Column 2, you get 255, which is the number of bits in a byte. We can access Array elements by its numeric index. This program allows the user to enter a string (or character array). This is C program that asks user to define the size of data types acquired by them. CPP03 - Write a CPP program to find the maximum marks, average-marks and minimum marks obtained by a study in five papers given; CPP02 - Write a CPP program to explain the use of for loop, while loop, switch-case, break and continue statements. Highway snow avalanche forecasting programs typically rely on weather and field observations to make road closure and hazard : evaluations. C Program to find the size of int, float, double and char 14. Additional Data types in C++. Iterative Execution. It's the same range you'd find in a C language char variable. It can hold any value between 0 and 255. I am using Arduino mega as a programmer to program Atmega328P-PU on breadboard. This is C Program Find the Factorial of N Number. Then the value in the allocated memory will be printed. Submitted by IncludeHelp, on November 08, 2017 Given a file and we have to read it’s all bytes (byte buffer) using C# program. Average notes. c in Cscope before 15. A C variable can be declared as follows int x = 10; This defines a variable x of type int (32-bits) and assigns 10 as the initial value. Converts the Lua value at the given index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number). C / C++ Forums on Bytes. The hexadecimal code is specially interesting in computer science since nowadays, computers are based on bytes composed of 8 binary bits and therefore each byte matches with the range that 2 hexadecimal numbers can represent. • Example: the status byte of a note off message for channel 7 is “86”. That port is known as LPT port or printer port. C Program for Tower of Hanoi; C++ Program for Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm? C/C++ Program for nth Catalan Number? C Program to Multiply two Floating Point Numbers? C program to find the length of a string? C Program to Check if all digits of a number divide it; C Program to Check if a Given String is a Palindrome?. ) Other errors may occur, depending on the object connected to fd. util package. As the subject line states - I am basically trying to take a Base64 encoded string and decode it then turn in into an PNG image. C Program to Find the Size of int, float, double and char In this example, you will learn to evaluate the size of each variable using sizeof operator. The following example uses pointers to copy bytes from one array to another. A byte is only a collection of bits, and the only operators defined for it are the. Understanding the ELF. You can use any C++ compiler. The program then finds the second largest element of the array using for loop. But this is not what we’ve found at Triplebyte. ASCII value represents the English characters as numbers, each letter is assigned a number from 0 to 127. Suppose the number is 205. Could anyone please suggest me a way of doing this. The patient's progress was closely observed during his inpatient rehabilitation program, after he underwent spinal decompression surgery. UTF_8); Above code is perfectly fine and ‘str’ value will be ‘PAN’. 0f double 0. It stores a single character and requires a single byte of memory in almost all compilers. Bitwise Operators in C Programming In arithmetic-logic unit (which is within the CPU), mathematical operations like: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are done in bit-level. Bitwise AND Operator (&) is used to check whether a bit is SET (HIGH) or not SET (LOW) in C and C++ programming language. The hexadecimal code is specially interesting in computer science since nowadays, computers are based on bytes composed of 8 binary bits and therefore each byte matches with the range that 2 hexadecimal numbers can represent. Surprisingly, C++11 feels like a new language: The pieces just fit together better than they used to and I find a higher-level style of programming more natural than before and as efficient as ever. In this C programming tutorial we are going to talk about the use of binary files. That’s why each value on the stack in the diagram above takes 8 bytes. C PROGRAMMING - PROGRAM TO FIND SMALLEST AND LARGEST ELEMENT IN AN ARRAY Sundeep Saradhi Kanthety. Sammes & B. Reading from a file and writing to a file using Java program. ” If you need the notion of an optional value, use a pointer, std::optional, or a special value used to denote “no value. Representation of Hexadecimal numbers in C programming. In this program we will see how to read an integer number entered by user. In this C# program, we are going to learn how to read all bytes (byte buffer) from a file? To read all bytes, we are using ReadAllBytes() method of File class. NET Forums /. The byte data type can store whole numbers from -128 to 127. Below is the implementation of above idea. You are looking for an 8 byte unsigned int value. You must convert this value into decimal form, but remember since you are dealing with a 2-byte integer, the right most bit in 00000110 <--- is in position 256. Improve your coding skills with our library of 300+ challenges and prepare for coding interviews with content from leading technology companies. edit close. It stores the same kind of data as an int (i. Bitwise Operators in C Programming In arithmetic-logic unit (which is within the CPU), mathematical operations like: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are done in bit-level. v The value of each byte in memory can be read and written v Programs refer to bytes in memory by their addresses § Domain of possible addresses = address space v But not all values (e. Here is a C program to check little and big endian machine architecture. Any additional required file structure must be supplied by the user's. Beware the optimiser! Failing that, the normal 'C' tools of masks/shifts, or bitfields - taking care to read the manual & app notes on bit & byte ordering. Converts the Lua value at the given index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number). Remember that the byte with all bits having a value of 0 has its value set to 0. We can program this port for device control and data transfer. Partiview (PC-VirDir) Peter Teuben, Stuart Levy 15 February. The encoding map converts character values from the input string to byte values in the output and the decoding map goes the other way. It has two major drawbacks: You must know the exact data layout of the input file in advance and rewrite the function call for every different layout. 4 Main program in C. Q: Which of these formats is the most standard?. Read from a COM port using Java program. Converting bytes to another unit of data. Bitwise AND Operator (&) is used to check whether a bit is SET (HIGH) or not SET (LOW) in C and C++ programming language. Pointer Arithmetic in C programming language including Increment, decrement, comparison of two pointers, Valid and Invalid arithmetic pointer operations Incrementing and decrementing a pointer and C program to show pointer arithmetic with sample input output. The BitConverter class in. The main benefit of this is that constants can be referred to in a consistent, expressive and type safe way. Manuel posted: well, I thought about using the variable of type byte because I need to store values from 0 to 255. C Program to find the size of int, float, double and char 14. It has a minimum value of -128 and a maximum value of 127 (inclusive). lib path as shown in the picture. The array indexes start at zero. float: It is used to store decimal numbers (numbers with floating point value) with single precision. Instead of defining the exact sizes of the integer types, C defines lower bounds. C Program to check leap year 16. The symbol of percent is %. The terminating null byte is considered to be part of the string. Pointer stores the address of the Variable. Reference types include class types, interface types, delegate types, and array types. A byte can store a relatively small amount of data: one single character or a small integer (generally an integer between 0 and 255). If a conflict occurs, use NAMES or STRUCTURE, or manually edit the generated declaration or source program. Go to the editor Expected Output: The given array is: 6 7 3 6 8 7 6 8 3 3 The two numbers occuring odd number of times are: 3 & 6 Click me to see the solution. The function returns the location of the found character, or a null pointer if the character was not found. Its minimum value is -128 and maximum value is 127. Posted 21-Nov-11 21:28pm. The Byte class wraps a value of primitive type byte in an object. If you are compiling the project in ‘Release’ mode the n select the cryptlib. Data records begin with a delete flag byte. Note that this means, for example, that in the case of C-like languages a search for an untyped 0x42 will search for ' (int) 0x42 ' which is typically four bytes. and Computer Science Mount Allison University Sackville, NB Introduction Using streams for file processing is certainly possible in C++, but most C++ textbooks do not include any information regarding the full functionality of streams. If required, write back to your original byte. 4 Main program in C. h header determines various properties of the various variable types. Constants are values that are hard-coded into a program, and which do not chnage value. That's a good question. However, in some cases the size of a referred-to memory region is ambiguous. Whenever a variable is defined in C++, the compiler allocates some memory for that variable based on the data-type with which it is declared. char: The most basic data type in C. Malloc and structures. GUIDs are not a GUARantee. C Program to find Second largest Number in an Array. Integer data type is used to store a value of numeric type. Java String valueOf() The java string valueOf() method converts different types of values into string. Takes another example. To print ASCII values of all the character in C++ programming, use the number from 1 to 255 and place the number in the ch variable of char type to convert the ASCII value in equivalent character to print all the ASCII values of the characters as shown here in the following program. The result is a Byte object that represents. Visit the post for more. CS429 Slideset 2: 20 Bits and Bytes. If a conflict occurs, use NAMES or STRUCTURE, or manually edit the generated declaration or source program. As we also know that calling a function takes time when it jumps from the position in the memory where it is called. For character strings, the standard library uses the convention that strings are null-terminated: a string of n characters is represented as an array of n. MCS-012 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE. C tutorial for beginners with examples - Learn C programming language covering basic C, data types, arrays, pointers, structures, C union with examples. When a value-type instance is created, a single space in memory is allocated to store the value. a) is the most widely supported in plain text files and b) and c) use the most space, but are widely supported for program source files in Java and C, or within HTML and XML files respectively. The type of a variable determines how much space it occupies in storage and how the bit pattern stored is interpreted. Following are the fields of java. NET Forums /. Data records begin with a delete flag byte. The bytes type in Python is immutable and stores a sequence of values ranging from 0-255 (8-bits). How to find and change a bit value in a byte using c#RSS. Jenkinson (Springer, 2000); that was my inspiration to start this list in 2002. It can be used to wrap these libraries in pure Python. It comes with a default 1MHz Internal calibrated oscillator frequency. prefix can contain double-byte characters. In this tutorial, you will learn about basic data types such as int, float, char, etc. As the subject line states - I am basically trying to take a Base64 encoded string and decode it then turn in into an PNG image. If the value size is not specified, it is taken from the value's type in the current language. With the completed code, the program will run correctly. lib path as shown in the picture. link brightness_4 code // C++ program to swap two // nibbles in a byte. - Fixed "Find Previous" when nothing is selected and the match can be the current or previous character (ex ". C program to set nth bit of a number January 24, 2016 Pankaj C programming Bitwise operator , C , Program Write a C program to input any number from user and set n th bit of the given number as 1. The macros defined in this header, limits the values of various variable types like char, int and long. Are you looking to compare two array of bytes in C#? Below is a sample code snippet that demonstrates how to do it. For character strings, the standard library uses the convention that strings are null-terminated: a string of n characters is represented as an array of n. and Computer Science Mount Allison University Sackville, NB Introduction Using streams for file processing is certainly possible in C++, but most C++ textbooks do not include any information regarding the full functionality of streams. CHAR_BIT 8 Defines the number of bits in a byte. We generally count percentage of marks obtained, return on. C Program to Find the Second Largest Element in an Array is used find the second largest number using for loop and prints it on the output screen. Their names all start with double underscores. Each program relies on a number of functions, some of which will be standard C library functions, like printf(), malloc(), strcpy(), etc. The Byte array is assumed to be in network byte order with the most significant byte in index position 0. Read from a COM port using Java program. 6 allow user-assisted remote attackers to execute arbitrary code via a long (1) function name or (2) symbol in a source-code file. The program is run by the user. What unit comes before a byte? A nibble (typically four bits) comes before a byte. The bytearray() takes three optional parameters: source (Optional) - source to initialize the array of bytes. If instead you try to write byte-order-dependent code in a type-safe language, you'll find it's very hard. 3); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0. This program is for finding the factorial of N number. -Fill a certain number of memory locations with a given value. Submitted By: Dan Nicholson Date: 2007-05-23 Initial Package Version: 4. Calculate gross salary in Java. C++ Bitwise Operators operates on Integer and character data types only. But what happens if a value is more than one byte big? In my case I have ended up with a 4 byte value stored accross 4 index postions. See more: C#. hope it was useful. Next, it will find the maximum occurring character (most repeated character) inside a string. When applied to a reference type, the result is the. In programming, one of the frequently arising problem is to handle numerous data of same type. v The value of each byte in memory can be read and written v Programs refer to bytes in memory by their addresses § Domain of possible addresses = address space v But not all values (e. The following example uses pointers to copy bytes from one array to another. Bitwise AND Operator (&) is used to check whether a bit is SET (HIGH) or not SET (LOW) in C and C++ programming language. Or this feature can be incorporated into the function, by passing an additional parameter. All 4 port registers are bit as well as byte addressable. 3); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0. MCS-012 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE. lib file in your Release Folder and if you are compiling the project in ‘Debug’ mode the n select the cryptlib. For example, the ASCII value for uppercase Q is 81. Byte data type is a 8-bit signed two's complement integer; Minimum value is : -128 (-2^7) Maximum value is : 127 (inclusive)(2^7 -1) Default value is : 0; Byte data type is used to save space in large arrays, mainly in place of integers, since a byte is four times smaller than an int. XOR is the exclusive OR operator in C programming, yet another bitwise logical operator. The read() method of an InputStream returns an int which contains the byte value of the byte read. Here’s an easy to understand explanation and a bunch of examples to help you understand the concept of using conditional statements in C. Square of given number using function with an argument and a return value. One of the more elementary VBA tasks that any developer will perform is to find cells that meet some criteria. Program to find occurences of a word in a file.